خروج کارکنان دانشی و با تجربه از سازمان، برای موفقیت و دستیابی به اهداف آن زیان بار است. سازمان زمانی می تواند به ماموریت های خود دست یابد که دانش در سازمان مستند شده و اقدامات لازم برای حفظ آن انجام دهد. هدف مقاله حاضر، یافتن انواع تقلیل دانش در شرکت نفت می باشد. این تحقیق از روش نظریه داده بنیاد، مبتنی بر نمونه گیری نظری هدفمند از میان کارشناسان و خبرگان در شرکت نفت است. برای تحلیل داده های گردآوری شده از کد گذاری و تحلیل مقایسه ای برای ساختن دسته های مختلف دانش در سازمان استفاده شد. یافته ها نشان داد که هفت نوع دانش در شرکت نفت وجود دارد که عبارتند از: دانش عملیاتی، دانش تخصصی، دانش بازرگانی، دانش یادگیری از موفقیت و شکست، دانش فرایند، دانش مشروط، دانش فراسازمانی. تحقیق حاضر به منظور تهیه مجموعه ای از اطلاعات مقدماتی برای مدیران شرکت نفت به منظور تهیه راهبردهای مدیریت دانش برای تقابل با خروج دانش های مهم از سازمان ارائه شده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Typology of Critical knowledge to prevent it from loss the National Oil Company: A qualitative approach
The primary source of knowledge within the organization is its human capital. Throughout an individual's tenure within an organization, the human resources department can accumulate a wealth of skills, experiences, and ideas. This accumulation of knowledge is often referred to as a person's knowledge reserves, and can serve to generate both value and power for both the individual and the organization (Siyadi etal, 2016). The depletion of organizational knowledge is a regrettable reality for the organization (Bammad Sufi etal, 2016). The phenomenon of knowledge leakage within organizations has been The departure of knowledge workers, resulting in the loss of both tangible and intangible knowledge, is considered a critical factor in knowledge outflow from an organization. In the oil industry, expertise holds significant value across various specializations. Unlike several engineering domains, the regulations and principles of engineering that govern this industry are challenging to document and codify (Bagheri, 2004). The utilization of organizational knowledge has become increasingly imperative due to various factors, including heightened competition and innovation within organizations, workforce retirement, and migration, limited time for knowledge acquisition and testing, shifts in organizational strategies, absence of incentive systems, and insufficient recognition of the potency of knowledge and its ability to generate power (Moayedi Khorramabadi etal, 2019).
The oil industry is a highly specialized and experience-driven sector that places significant emphasis on human capital as the most valuable knowledge asset of the organization. According to Rajabpour and Baba Shahi (2020), human resources personnel employed in the oil industry possess significant skills and competencies that can significantly contribute to the attainment of predetermined missions and aims. The oil industry's failure to document, shares, and utilize the knowledge generated from experiences and intellectual and knowledge capital is indicative of unproductive practices and cost inefficiencies.
What are the classifications of organizational knowledge that emanate from National Oil Company?
The objective of knowledge retention is to guarantee that members of an organization are able to utilize knowledge again in the future (Lewalt and Chen, 2017). According to Lin et al (2016), the departure of an individual possessing valuable knowledge from an organization results in a diminution of organizational knowledge, thereby adversely impacting organizational memory (Taghizadeh Masan etal, 2017).
The knowledge of the organization ensures its survival and gives it a competitive advantage. The risk of organizational knowledge loss resulting from employee departures has emerged as a noteworthy concern. According to Daghfoos etal (2013). This study aims to identify critical knowledge that contributes to the National Oil Company's organizational objectives and is lost when employees depart. The research methodology involves a comprehensive review of prior studies and exploratory interviews. The National Oil Company operates in a knowledge-based industry. Therefore, by reviewing and analyzing prior research and conducting exploratory interviews, the current study aims to identify the knowledge that is crucial to achieving the organization's goals because, as a knowledge-based industry, the National Oil Company loses this knowledge when employees leave.
The research method was data-driven and an inductive approach. This study employed a qualitative data collection method, specifically through conducting interviews, to identify the types of knowledge that are being disseminated from the organization.
To ascertain the type of knowledge disseminated by the organization, a diverse group of individuals possessing expertise in the relevant subject matter, including academic authorities, were interviewed. The interviews were carried out using a semi-structured and in-depth approach. The length of the interview ranged from 20 to 60 minutes. Data collection was carried out until the point of data saturation. To authenticate the researchers, two external review strategies were employed: interviewing individuals beyond those designated for the interview to scrutinize and assess the research process, research output, and its precision, and pluralism, which entailed interviewing individuals at varying levels of the organization with distinct responsibilities.
The study employs a qualitative data collection method, specifically through conducting interviews, to identify the types of knowledge that are being disseminated from the organization.
To ascertain the typology of knowledge emanating from the organization, a diverse group of individuals possessing expertise in the relevant subject matter, including academic authorities, were interviewed. The interviews were carried out using a semi-structured and in-depth approach. Data collection was carried out until the point of data saturation. To authenticate the researchers, two external review strategies were employed: interviewing individuals beyond those designated for the interview to scrutinize and assess the research process, research output, and its precision, and pluralism, which entailed interviewing individuals at varying levels of the organization with distinct responsibilities.
Based on the results obtained from the present research, the departure of employees from the National Iranian Oil Company results in the loss of seven areas of knowledge. The company utilizes all knowledge that has been identified, which is classified into three distinct categories: vital, non-vital, and conditional knowledge. The three types of knowledge that are vital for a company's success are operational knowledge, specialized knowledge, and business knowledge. These types of knowledge are indispensable for the company, and their absence can result in significant costs for the organization. All the existing knowledge is intended to bolster the operational knowledge of the organization. The second classification pertains to non-vital information, which enhances the operational efficiency of the organization, but its absence has a comparatively lesser effect on the overall performance of the company. The aforementioned knowledge encompasses knowledge of learning from failure and success and process knowledge. Conditional knowledge is a type of knowledge that is contingent upon specific conditions and circumstances within the National Oil Company. Its absence does not have any significant impact on the overall performance of the company. The aforementioned knowledge encompasses both knowledge that exists outside of the organization as well as knowledge that is contingent upon certain conditions.
The present study has identified seven distinct forms of knowledge that experience a decline in the event of employee turnover within an organization. Based on the findings obtained from conducted interviews, it has been determined that within the context of Iran's embargo conditions, operational and business knowledge are the most crucial types of knowledge for the oil company, given the unique characteristics of oil extraction and sale. The loss of expertise in this industry can have a significant impact on the oil company's operations.
Additional structures within the organization serve to support both operational and business domains. One of the factors that can be identified is the significance of specialized knowledge, which is heavily reliant on the specialized knowledge of the staff. In the event of the departure of said individuals from the organization, the operational efficacy of the company may be compromised. Therefore, it is imperative to facilitate the transfer of their knowledge and expertise to other personnel, while also enhancing the knowledge is very important for the company. The acquisition of specialized knowledge within an oil company is a crucial determinant of its operational efficacy, and the absence of such knowledge can have a significant impact on its overall performance.